Cardiovascular disease risk profiles in inflammatory joint disease entities


© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to compare CVD risk profiles in patients with IJD, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and evaluate the future risk of CVD. Methods: The prevalence and numbers of major CVD risk factors (CVD-RFs) (hypertension, elevated cholesterol, obesity, smoking, and diabetes mellitus) were estimated in patients with RA, axSpA and PsA. Relative and absolute risk of CVD according to Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) was calculated. Results: In total, 3791 patients were included. CVD was present in 274 patients (7.2%). Of those without established CVD; hypertension and elevated cholesterol were the most frequent CVD-RFs, occurring in 49.8% and 32.8% of patients. Patients with PsA were more often hypertensive and obese. Overall, 73.6% of patients had a minimum of one CVD-RF, which increased from 53.2% among patients aged 30 to textless45 years, to 86.2% of patients aged 60 to ≤80 years. Most patients (93.5%) had low/moderate estimated risk of CVD according to SCORE. According to relative risk estimations, 35.2% and 24.7% of patients had two or three times risk or higher, respectively, compared to individuals with no CVD-RFs. Conclusions: In this nationwide Norwegian project, we have shown for the first time that prevalence and numbers of CVD-RFs were relatively comparable across the three major IJD entities. Furthermore, estimated absolute CVD risk was low, but the relative risk of CVD was markedly high in patients with IJD. Our findings indicate the need for CVD risk assessment in all patients with IJD.

Arthritis Research and Therapy